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"Dogs And Hearing Senses"
Humans can barely hear a radio playing at the distance of fifty feet.
Where a dog will hear the same radio at the same volume,
from the distance of 200 feet.
Dogs also can hear a wider range of sounds than humans do.
At lower frequencies-such as a sound produced by a passing truck-our
hearing compares favorably with a dog's,
but at higher frequencies a dog's hearing is far superior.
Dogs can tell the difference between one high-pitched sound and
another better than we can, and
they can detect such sounds at much lower volume.
The dog can also hear sounds so high-pitched
that the human ear misses them altogether.
A dog's ear, like a cat's, can swivel to locate the source of a sounds and
the two ears can move independently of each other.
This enables a dog to home in on noises
with lightning speed and great accuracy:
within about a half-second after the first sound waves strike its eardrum;
a dog can determine the location of a sound.
While the earflaps, or pinnae, come in all shapes and sizes,
a dog's hearing apparatus is the same from breed to breed and
except for the "L-shaped ear canal" is constructed very much like a human's.
Erect pinnae, such as a German Shepherd's resemble the original ancestral dog ear.
Floppy ears result from selective breeding by humans.
As in humans, the vibrations of the eardrum are picked up and
amplified by a series of three interconnected bones in the middle ear;
the malleus (hammer), the incus (anvil), and the stapes (stirrup).
Theses bones transmit the vibrations to the cochlea
in the inner ear, which converts the vibrations into nerve impulses.
These are then carried to the brain via
the vestibulocochlear nerve.
Housed in the inner ear is the balance mechanism,
which consists of the vertibule and the three semicircular canals.
Functioning in a manner similar to a carpenter's level,
these devices detect any change in motion of the head and
evaluate the head's position relative to the ground.
The data gathered by the structures in conveyed
via the vestibulocochlear nerve to the brain,
which then send instructions to the muscles of the limbs, the neck
and the eyes to help the dog stay upright.
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